Poster Session 2

Each poster author will have 3 minutes to present their poster.

LOCATION: Great Hall
17:00 Shu-Yuan PanAna Maria Lorente LafuenteChun-Da ChenAi-Lin Shen and Pen-Chi Chiang

Life Cycle Optimization of High-gravity Carbonation Process in the Steelmaking Industry: Engineering, Environmental, and Economic (3E) Aspects
SPEAKER: Shu-Yuan Pan

ABSTRACT. Accelerated mineralization by the high-gravity carbonation (i.e., HiGCarb) process using a rotating packed bed has been considered as a viable technology for CO2 capture and utilization in a scalable manner, especially when alkaline solid wastes are used as the feedstock of the mineralization process. The CO2 source can be introduced directly from the industrial stacks, eliminating the need of additional CO2 capture and transportation prior to the HiGCarb process. In addition, the reacted product is suited as cement substitution material, avoiding environmental burden from the cement industry. In this study, the HiGCarb process was comprehensively evaluated according to engineering, environmental, and economic (3E) criteria through a triangle model. Since the complex relationships among the 3E aspects can be easily visualized on a ternary plot for different scenarios, the triangle graphical presentation can be used for evaluating key factors that are related but also complementary. The 3E triangle model considers the aspects of life-cycle environmental impact (LCEI) on the X axis, engineering performance (EP) on the Y axis, and life-cycle cost (LCC) on the Z axis. For the environmental aspect, the impacts and benefits of the entire process were quantified by Umberto 5.6 using ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint impact assessments. Eight LCEI indicators, e.g., global warming potential, freshwater ecotoxicity, ecosystem quality, human health, particulate matter formation, marine eutrophication potential, and urban land occupation avoided, were selected. According to the LCA results, the net CO2 capture amount by the HiGCarb process was 282 kg-CO2/t-BOFS, accompanied by a CO2 avoidance of 997 kg-CO2/t-BOFS due to the product utilization. A CO2 reduction potential of up to 6.5% in total CO2 emission from the steelmaking industry could be achieved. Significant environmental benefits were realized by establishing the waste-to-resource supply chain between the steelmaking and cement industries, i.e., from waste treatment to cement production. It was concluded that the HiGCarb process should be environmentally promising and economically feasible due to its high overall engineering performance, which was scalable as a potential CO2 sink in industry. An integrated portfolio of multi-waste treatment combined with CO2 capture in the steelmaking industry can be achieved by the HiGCarb process.

17:00 Miguel F. AstudilloPierre-Olivier Pineau and Ben Amor

Residential heating in Montreal (Quebec) – life cycle analysis of different heating solutions to maintain thermal comfort.
SPEAKER: Ben Amor / Presentation

ABSTRACT. Quebec household heating consumes nearly a third of provincial electricity production and it is dominated by resistance systems. These systems are discouraged by reference international organizations such as the International Energy Agency, whose recommendations are to move to more efficient technologies such as heat-pumps (1). In this study we want to address the environmental impact of different heating systems using a life cycle approach.

Environmental impact of different heating options for a typical house in Montreal are analyzed using attributional and consequential life cycle assessment. The technologies selected for comparison include electric cold-climate air-source heat pumps, ground-source heat pumps, gas furnaces and electric resistance heaters. The electricity mix of adjacent jurisdictions will be used to analyze the potential of electricity trade. The inventory data builds on the recent update of the process-based Ecoinvent database. Long-term marginal electricity and gas production are identified and updated using the latest information available. The operational energy use is based on numeric simulation of the different heating systems under standard weather conditions. Both the attributional and consequential approach are conducted to illustrate current environmental burden and the impact of changes in heating systems.

The presented results will help to identify what are the best options for household heating in terms of environmental impact. Preliminary results suggest that ground-source heat-pumps are the best technology to reduce environmental burden within the province of Quebec. While the results will illustrate the case of Quebec, they can be potentially useful for regions of similar weather and electricity mix such as Norway and British Columbia.

17:00 Roberta GrafDaniel WehnerMichael HeldStefan EckertSimone Weidner and Michael Faltenbacher

Beyond the lab – environmental performance of electromobility

ABSTRACT. The transportation sector is responsible for roughly 15% of global greenhouse gas emissions [1]. One approach to tackle a reduction of those emissions while satisfying the mobility need of society is electromobilty. Life cycle assessment is the method of choice to quantify possible involved environmental benefits. Former publication could only draw on consumption measured in laboratory environments. Now real usage data is gathered and analyzed.

The project “PraxPerform E”, funded by the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure of Germany, chaperons the “Modellregionen Elektromobiltät” (model regions of electromobility in Germany) by a comprehensive data monitoring and subsequent environmental assessment of real life electric car usage [2]. Within the project an extensive and detailed generic vehicle model was used for diverse evaluations. To enable those contemplations the used vehicles and their usage context were classified. Comparisons between categories as well as propulsion technologies were conducted. A wide scope of car segments, propulsion technics and use concepts was covered.

The current results show, that real life mileage as well as energy consumption are very diverse and heterogenic, a fact which is also reflected in the linked environmental impacts. Hence the environmental potentials of different utilization concept of electromobilty varies accordingly. The presented results highlight some of the identified potentials.

The study provides insight on the environmental impact assessment of electric cars beyond laboratory consumptions. The poster will give an overview of the approach and will discuss the monitored E-mobility concepts with exemplary LCA results. The evaluation is based on real life field tests with a wide range of utilization concepts. This facilitates specific assertions to the environmental performance of electromobility in real life.

[1] OECD/ITF: International Transport Forum. Reducing Transport Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Trends & Data. 2010 [2] BMVI: Bewertung der Praxistauglichkeit und Umweltwirkungen von ElektrofahrzeugenZwischenbericht. 2015

17:00 Hessam AzarijafariAmmar Yahia and Ben Amor

Life cycle assessment of concrete and asphalt pavements: a case study in the province of Quebec (Canada)
SPEAKER: Ben Amor / Presentation

ABSTRACT. Road construction and maintenance are both important consumers of natural resources and energy. The two main pavement types used today, in the province of Quebec, is asphalt and cement concrete pavement. This branch of construction industry has a significant impact on the environment and therefore it could be of interest to find out which of the two has the least potential impact.

In this study a comparative attributional life cycle assessment was carried out for 1 km length of a pavement with 3 lanes in a rural area of Quebec and for a 50 year lifespan (defined as functional unit). The road engineering specifications was calculated based on Ministry of Transportation of Quebec codes. The data was majorly adopted from ecoinvent V. 3.1. Modeling was performed on OpenLCA software and Impact 2002+ was chosen to calculate problem and damage categories.

Preliminary results shows that asphalt has the largest potential impact in all 4 damage categories (Based on Impact 2002+ impact assessment method). Contribution analysis introduces Portland cement production and use phase as environmental hotspots in concrete and asphalt life cycle, respectively. In both systems, terresterial ecotoxicity is the main contributor midpoint category of ecosystem quality. For human health and resource damage categories, respiratory inorganics and non-renewable energy are the main contributors, respectively. The sensitivity analysis shows negligible effect of landfilling contribution on the damage categories, in comparison to transportation, where, concrete environmental impacts are more sensitive to transportation distance rather than asphalt system.

This study results will make possible for policy makers, project managers, construction engineers and users have a prospective in sustainable development of the pavement sector especially in Quebec area.

17:00 Shu-Yuan PanYupo J. LinSeth W. SnyderHwong-Wen Ma and Pen-Chi Chiang

Life Cycle Assessment on Deacidification of Corn Stover Hydrolysate Liquor for Biofuel Production: Opportunity of Resin Wafer Based Electrodeionization
SPEAKER: Shu-Yuan Pan

ABSTRACT. Lignocellulosic biomass is considered to be one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuel production because it is the most abundant natural resource, and can be hydrolyzed to sugars and then fermented to biofuel (e.g., bio-ethanol) by various microbes. In the bio-conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol, pretreatment is an essential procedure to increase the accessibility and susceptibility of carbohydrates to enzymes and facilitate hydrolysis of lignocellulos to fermentable sugars. Among various pretreatments, the dilute-acid method using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) has been commonly used for hydrolyzing hemicellulose to sugars. However, several challenges detrimental to down-stream processing exist such as acidity of hydrolysate liquor and formation of the inhibitory compounds to fermentation. To address these issues, different methods such as overliming, ammonium hydroxide conditioning, and hydrophobic adsorbants, are proposed for conditioning the pretreated hydrolysate. As far, overliming is one of the most effective and economically viable methods, which improve most microorganisms’ ability to ferment sugars. In Argonne National Lab (ANL), a resin-wafer electrodeionization (RW-EDI) technology has been applied successfully to detoxify dilute acid pretreated solution and improve the down-stream enzyme hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation performance. However, the environmental benefits of the developed RW-EDI technology were not critically evaluated throughout the process life-cycle point of view. Therefore, the objectives of our study were (1) to quantify the environmental impacts of different types of the deacidification processes for corn stover hydrolysate liquor using life cycle assessment (LCA), (2) to estimate the processing cost of RW-EDI for various levels of organic acid removal, and (3) to evaluate the engineering, environmental, and economic (3E) performance for different types of processes. The environmental impacts and benefits of different types of deacidification processes were quantified by LCA using Umberto 5.6 with the ReCiPe methodology for both midpoint and endpoint assessments. The functional unit was set to be one kilogram dry corn stover biomass to be treated. A total of ten mid-point impact indicators, i.e., WDP (water depletion potential), GWP (global warming potential), FEP (freshwater eutrophication), HTPinf (human toxicity), METPinf (marine ecotoxicity), MEP (marine eutrophication), PMFP (particulate matter formation), POFP (photochemical oxidant formation), TAP (terrestrial acidification), TETP (terrestrial ecotoxicity), were determined. The results indicated that a significant amount of water use could be reduced by the RW-EDI process. According to the LCA, the process consumptive water of RW-EDI can be diminished to 59% (compared to overliming), corresponding to a decrease of process carbon footprint by ~72%. It was concluded that the RW-EDI should be the best available process for biomass hydrolysate conditioning due to its superior engineering performance with relatively lower environmental impacts, compared to other conditioning processes.

17:00 Pradeep JainJustin SmithAshley EdelenDavid MeyerWesley IngwersenTimothy TownsendThabet Tolaymat and David Carson

Life Cycle Inventories for End-of-Life Management of Construction and Demolition Materials

ABSTRACT. Over 220 million metric tons of construction and demolition debris (CDD) are discarded annually in the US. To date, LCA studies have primarily focused on the manufacturing and service life phases of these materials; data and LCIs pertaining to material end-of-life (EOL) management are relatively scarce. These materials may be landfilled or recycled in either an open-loop (e.g., use of wood for mulch production) or a closed-loop application (e.g., use of reclaimed asphalt pavement in the production of new pavement mix). We are developing publically-accessible LCIs for several construction and demolition materials including wood, concrete, asphalt pavement mix, asphalt roofing shingles, land clearing debris, gypsum drywall, carpet, corrugated containers, fiberglass insulation, clay bricks, vinyl flooring, PVC, and copper wire. In addition to compiling data from existing sources, we are gathering primary process-specific data for processes for which US-specific data are not available. For example, we are partnering with CDD processing facilities to collect material and energy input data to compile LCIs for mixed CDD recycling as these LCIs are not available. This poster reports progress on our initiatives to develop LCIs specific to the EOL phase of these materials. Once complete and reviewed, these LCIs will be made available through the US Federal Data Commons.

17:00 Ashley Edelen and Wesley Ingwersen

Life cycle inventory master list management: methods for simplifying elementary flow naming conventions
SPEAKER: Ashley Edelen

ABSTRACT. The number of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) peer reviewed articles has rapidly increased during the last three decades. This is due to the recognition LCA has received as a tool for providing environmental managers and government policy makers with vital information for making informed sustainable decisions. Per a review of published literature from 2000-2014 using the search term “life cycle assessment” on, citations have risen from 164 per year to 1,861ǂ (THOMSON REUTERS, 2015). As more studies are conducted and published, life cycle inventory (LCI) databases have seen rapid increases in the number of unique elementary flow names. The latest update of the ecoinvent database from version 2.2 to version 3 added nearly 100 new unique elementary flow names to the master list (Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, 1998-2015). Much of this growth is rooted in vague naming conventions that allow unique flow details and activity information to be included in names. The increase in elementary flows places an increased burden on database managers while creating confusion for users. This research proposes an innovative method for simplifying elementary flow master lists by applying ontological concepts developed for semantic data management. The application of ontology in this context advocates the building of a shared framework that describes the concepts and relationships that can exist within LCA, thus eliminating or minimizing conceptual and terminological confusion (Gruber, 1993). Current nomenclature methods support storing activity and flow information as a part of the flow name. Use of this method reduces the number of unique flow names by eliminating the practice of storing flow and activity details within the flow name and instead stores this information in metadata categories that are associated with the flow. With this method the objective is to reduce redundancies in flow names and improve opportunities for interoperability between LCI databases. Application of this method is tested using the OpenLCA master flow list. Naming categories such as ores, fuels, ions, water and land use are identified as presenting unique challenges during the conversion process (Ingwersen & Ciroth, 2015). Recommendations on potential solutions for the structuring of these categories are discussed in detail.

References Curran, M. A. (n.d.). Is the Critical Review Process Keeping Pace with the Growing Number of Life Cycle Assessments? Portland Oregon: American Center for Life Cycle Assessment. Gruber, T. (1993). A translation approach to portable ontologies. Knowledge Acquisition, 5(2), pp. 199-220. Ingwersen, W., & Ciroth, A. (2015). Elementary Flow Harmonization with openLCA and the LCA Harmonization Tool. 4th Meeting of the International Forum on LCA cooperation. Shah Alam, Malaysia: US EPA and Greendelta. Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories. (1998-2015). ecoinvent Centre. Retrieved from Documents and Files: Correspondance file for elementary exchanges – ecoinvent v2.2 to ecoinvent v3.01: THOMSON REUTERS. (2015). Web of Science. Retrieved from

17:00 Sabrina SaibiHubert Cabana and Ben Amor

Designing and scaling up a bioreactor life cycle inventory: the case of pharmaceutical contaminants removal
SPEAKER: Ben Amor / Presentation

ABSTRACT. Technological developments are required to tackle today society challenges related to environmental impacts. As an example, over the past 20 years, increasing attention was devoted to pharmaceutical contaminants with adverse effects on living organisms. However, wastewater treatment plants are inefficient in removing pharmaceuticals, consequently causing their releasing and accumulation into the environment. For this, we need to develop new technologies to treat these contaminants.

In this project, we propose the development of a new bioprocess, designed for the treatment of wastewater and polluted biosolids by fungi and their enzymes. Therefore, we designed a continuous perfusion bioreactor. A scale-up of the bioreactor will be made by different assumptions, such as geometric similarity, the homogenization performance, stirring speed, power comsumption, etc. A life cycle assessment will applied once the bioreactor is scale-up. This approach helps to assess the potential environmental impacts from cradle to the grave of the bioprocess, and, most importantly, to avoid environmental impact displacements. Simapro and Ecovinvent 3.1 will be used for the LCA modeling, in combination with IMPACT 2002+ LCIA method.

Expected environmental life cycle results will help us to track potential impacts during the design phase and technological development of the proposed bioreactor. Moreover, necessary answers on the performance of the bioreactor in avoiding pharmaceutical contaminant pollution will be obtained.

17:00 Donald Vineyard and Wesley Ingwersen

Quantitative and Qualitative comparison of major petroleum life cycle models

ABSTRACT. The United States produces more than a third of its total energy from petroleum products. While primarily used for transportation, petroleum is also a critical material for the manufacture of hundreds of products ranging from asphalt to pharmaceuticals. Petroleum use also carries with it considerable environmental concerns; emissions are generated not only at point-of-use, but during the extraction, refining, and transportation phases of the petroleum life cycle. As such, many organizations have attempted to develop an accurate model of the life cycle of petroleum products in order to better inform decision-makers of the consequences of its use. Our paper studies five of these models, demonstrating the differences in their prediction and attempting to evaluate their unique life cycle assessment methodologies. The five models chosen for analysis are as follows: a method published by Sengupta et al utilizing public US emissions data, unit processes published in the EcoInvent 2.2 database by the Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, unit processes published in the US LCI database by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the 2014 GREET software published by Argonne National Laboratory, and a series of unit processes published by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Our analysis found that the five models yielded surprisingly varied results, given the relative importance of the subject. Carbon dioxide life cycle emissions were in general agreement between the models, with a standard deviation only 11.5% of the mean prediction, but other pollutants such as ammonia and PM2.5 saw deviations over 100% of the mean prediction. Differences in predictions do not appear to be uniform between models and are not apparently explained by differences in allocation method. Our analysis also found that published methodologies may not be in agreement with published models. Effects of these deviations on passenger vehicle and truck transportation life cycle models may be minimal for effects such as GWP (6% spread), but for respiratory effects of criteria pollutants (41% spread) and other impact categories, they can be significant. This suggests that stakeholders may need to carefully consider their choice of model when studying systems that make heavy use of petroleum products.

17:00 Bálint SimonBen Amor and Marcel Weil

The effect of theoretical scaling-up procedure on the results of a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of lab-scale pyrolysis and nano-fiber production
SPEAKER: Ben Amor / Presentation

ABSTRACT. Rapid progress of technology and growing environmental concerns urge the technology developer to consider environmental aspects already in the design phase, which is a laborious task, due to the lacking information on final characteristics of the technology. Although several publications are tackling this issue, challenging problematic of production inventory up-scaling is still far from being solved.

Scaling is necessary to anticipate life cycle environmental impacts of industrial-scale productions and operations. Due to the complexity of this issue, a range of methods has to be involved. Combination of distinct technics like economies of scale [1], artificial neural networks [2,3], cascaded option tree model [4], thermo- and fluid dynamics as well as usage of pilot scale data and historical information [5,6] could result in adaptable calculation procedure to obtain information at low maturity of technologies.

The presentation will describe a theoretical scale-up procedure (TSP) based on lab-scale measurements and analyze the results on two examples from research laboratories. Following case studies were selected: pyrolytic treatment of waste printed wiring board (wPWB) and manufacturing of nanofibers via electrospinning. The TSP comprises the analysis of analogies, analysis of dimensions and analysis of similarities.

Preliminary results of evaluation showed interesting differences between potential impacts of lab-scale and theoretically scaled-up process. These are often originating in significant efficiency growth. For example, lab-scale pyrolysis of wPWB requires around 600 Wh electricity input for pyrolytic treatment of 160 g wPWB [7], larger lab-scale consumes 1.0-1.2 kWhel/kg wPWB [8] and the theoretical large-scale process requires 90-120 kg natural gas/ton wPWB depending on thermal efficiency [9,10].

It is important to define the level of detail of scale-up procedure, in order to mitigate the time consume and information requirement. However, in spite of the need for further development, some conclusions could be drawn supporting the developers to shape their research toward finding new materials and technologies with lower environmental impacts.

1. Caduff, M., Huijbregts, M. A. J., Koehler, A., Althaus, H.-J. & Hellweg, S. Scaling Relationships in Life Cycle Assessment. J. Ind. Ecol. 18, 393–406 (2014). 2. Seo, K.-K., Min, S.-H. & Yoo, H.-W. in Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2005 (eds. Gervasi, O. et al.) 458–466 (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2005). at 3. Wernet, G., Papadokonstantakis, S., Hellweg, S. & Hungerbühler, K. Bridging data gaps in environmental assessments: Modeling impacts of fine and basic chemical production. Green Chem. 11, 1826–1831 (2009). 4. Bednarz, A., Rüngeler, B. & Pfennig, A. Use of Cascaded Option Trees in Chemical-Engineering Process Development. Chem. Ing. Tech. 86, 611–620 (2014). 5. Kupfer, T. Prognosen von Umweltauswirkungen bei der Entwicklung chemischer Anlagen. (University of Stuttgart, 2005), Ph.D. Theisi. 6. Shibasaki, M. Methode zur Prognose der Ökobilanz einer Großanlage auf Basis einer Pilotanlage in der Verfahrenstechnik : ein Beitrag zur Ganzheitlichen Bilanzierung. (2009), Ph.D. Thesis. 7. Quan, C., Li, A. & Gao, N. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and porous carbons from printed circuit board waste pyrolysis oil. J. Hazard. Mater. 179, 911–917 (2010). 8. Simon, B. Recycling of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment – Environmental life cycle assessment and life cycle cost assessment of treatment of waste printed wiring boards by pyrolysis. (Pannon University, 2013), Ph.D. Thesis. 9. Angyal, A. Personal Consultation, University of Pannonia, Department of MOL Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing. (2009). 10. Csukás, B. et al. Simplified dynamic simulation model of plastic waste pyrolysis in laboratory and pilot scale tubular reactor. Fuel Process. Technol. 106, 186–200 (2013).

17:00 Sofie HuysmanSam DebaveyeThomas SchaubroeckSteven De MeesterFulvio ArdenteFabrice Mathieux and Jo Dewulf

LCA-based indicators for recycling: a case study on plastic waste treatment in Flanders

ABSTRACT. The last decades, waste management strategies are shifting from waste disposal to recycling, considering waste as resources. To quantitatively monitor the progress in this transition, a wide range of indicators has been developed.

One of these indicators developed by the European Commission is the recyclability benefit rate (RBR), defined as the ratio of the environmental benefits that can be achieved from recycling over the environmental losses related to virgin production and disposal.[1] These environmental benefits and losses are expressed in terms of environmental impacts obtained through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). To assess the usefulness of this indicator, we applied it on two cases of plastic waste treatment in Flanders, Belgium: closed-loop recycling (case A) and open-loop recycling (case B). The environmental impact of resource consumption is quantified as the Cumulative Exergy Extraction of the Natural Environment (CEENE).[2]

Case A considers plastic waste from electronic appliances. The recycled plastic is of good quality and can be used in products similar to the original product. The average RBR of case A is 58%. Case B considers plastic household waste. The recycled plastic is of lower quality, making it only useable for other products, e.g. street benches, in which it substitutes other materials, e.g. wood. Here, the indicator had to be further adapted for open-loop recycling. The outcome is an average RBR of 13%. This value is rather low because more mass of the recycled plastic is needed to meet the same quality requirements as the substituted material.

By further developing the indicator for open-loop recycling, it was possible to quantify the environmental sustainability of plastic recycling in Flanders. These quantitative results may be useful for policy makers, e.g. in legislation on subsidies and levies.

References [1] Ardente and Mathieux, Journal of Cleaner Production 2014; 83: 126-141 [2] Dewulf et al. Environmental Science & Technology 2007; 41(24): 8477–8483

17:00 Sandra Harumi FukurozakiAntônio Braulio NetoLuzia Bouzan Oliveira Costa and José Octavio Armani Paschoal

Global warming potential and energy payback time of HTPEM technology powered by natural gas reforming

ABSTRACT. In recent years, the environmental impact assessment of alternative technologies for electricity production, such as the Fuel Cell (FC), has been the focus of several studies. Considering the various types of FC, which are still being developed, there remain gaps in the field of possible technical solutions to improve environmental performance. This study uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the global warming potential (GWP 100 years), the cumulative energy demand (CED) and energy payback time (EPBT) in a 20 kWe HTPEM power plant in Brazil: The power plant studied is a pilot that uses High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell technology and natural gas (NG) reforming to produce energy for the commercial and residential sectors. The scope of the LCA study covered the production and distribution of natural gas in the state of São Paulo, including the phases of construction, installation and maintenance of NG reforming and HTPEM systems, as well as the production of hydrogen and electricity over 40,000 hours of operation. The results indicated that the greatest contribution of CO2 eq (GWP) resulted from the natural gas input into the system (70%). In the hydrogen production phase, 36% of emissions derived from fossil fuels burnt in the heating process (0.00827 kg CO2 eq / MJ), while 52% originated from the consumption of NG in the reforming process itself (0.0119 kg CO2 eq / MJ). On the other side, both the reuse of hydrogen that has not been consumed in FC as fuel in the heating process and the recovery of waste heat generated in the system can lead to a reduction of up to 20% of the emissions generated in the use phase. In terms of cumulative energy demand, it point toward a reduction of up to 25% of the CED; that is (-0.499MJ / MJ) in the recovery of waste heat and (-0.104 MJ / MJ) in the reuse of residual hydrogen. Under these conditions the EPBT of the system is 2.4 years. Besides increasing FC life time, this study highlights that possible further improvement in order to allow heat recovery, for example, the use of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), can lead to improvements in the environmental performance of the system.